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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 55-60

Empiric antibiotic treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in Spanish Intensive Care Units: What has changed over the years?

Department of Critical Care, Joan XXIII University Hospital of Tarragona, Tarragona; Pere Virgili Health Research Institute, Tarragona, Spain

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Alejandro Rodríguez Oviedo
Department of Critical Care, Joan XXIII University Hospital of Tarragona, Mallafré Guasch 4, 43007 Tarragona
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2225-6482.184915

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Background and Objectives: Appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is crucial in terms of outcome. International guidelines suggest combination therapy (CT) for CAP patients admitted to Intensive Care Units (ICU). However, that type of combination of antibiotics is not clear. This study aims to determine the empiric antibiotic treatment of severe CAP in two periods. Our hypothesis was that macrolide use has decreased in the recent years. Materials and Methods: We compared in two prospective similarly designed cohort studies (1) CAP in ICU (2000-2002) and (2) H1N1 SEMICYUC (2009-2011) of critically ill patients with CAP: (a) Rate of CT and (b) use of macrolide or quinolones in each period. Demographic, severity of illness and clinical data were recorded. Chi-square test (categorical variables) and Student's t-test (continuous variables) were used. Results are shown as median, standard deviation, odds ratio, and 95% confidence interval. P < 0.05 was considered. Results: We included 1059 patients, 529 (49.9%) in the first period and 530 (50.1%) in the second period. The severity of illness and mortality rate was not different between periods. In overall, 866 (81.7%) received CT and this therapy was more frequent in the second period (85.3% vs. 78.3%, P < 0.003). A significant reduction in macrolide use in the second period was observed (26% vs. 55%; P < 0.01) even in patients with shock. Conclusions: Despite published evidence, CT use with quinolones has increased in the last years in Spanish ICUs.

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