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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 36-42

The significance of clinical scores and biological markers in disease severity, mortality prediction, and justifying hospital admissions in patients with community-acquired pneumonia

1 Intensive Care Unit, St. James's University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
2 Department of Clinical Medicine, Multidisciplinary Intensive Care Research Organization, Wellcome Trust - HRB Clinical Research, Trinity Centre for Health Sciences, St. James's University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ignacio Martin-Loeches
Intensive Care Unit, St. James's University Hospital, Dublin
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2225-6482.184909

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There is a higher prevalence of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) worldwide. The stratification of the severity and prognosis of CAP is a vital feature as it is one of the most common causes of mortality among other infectious diseases in the developed countries. The mortality rate of patients with CAP depends on the severity of the disease, treatment failure along with the requirement of hospitalization and/or Intensive Care Unit (ICU) management which is quite cost-effective. To improve the outcomes in the management of CAP, there has recently been a significant attention paid to focus on the use and implication of evidence-based scoring systems and biological markers to justify hospital admission in either acute medical settings or ICU, also to classify the disease severity which will help in predicting the mortality rate. We have reviewed the significance of established and newly developed clinical scores, biological markers, and cytokines whether used alone or in conjunction with the clinical severity scores to assess the severity of the disease, prediction of early or late treatment failure, justify the acute in-hospital or ICU admission, and for the identification of short- and long-term mortality. In conclusion, the incorporation of the biological markers in the prognostic scales of the clinical scoring systems may improve the mortality prediction value of patients with CAP requiring acute hospitalization or ICU care and further studies at a larger scale are needed to corroborate the additive value of biological markers.

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